Pacific Leatherback Sea Turtle

1. Gibbons, M.J. and Richardson, A.J. 2009. Patterns of jellyfish abundance in the North Atlantic. Hydrobiologia 616:51-65. https://www.researchgate. net/publication/226822375_Patterns_of_jellyfish_ abundance_in_the_North_Atlantic; Purcell, J.E. and Arai, M.N. 2001. Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: A review. Hydrobiologia 451: 27-44. publication/226927949_Interactions_of_pelagic_ Cnidarians_and_Ctenophores_with_fish_a_review_ Series_developments_in_hydrobiology_155.
2. Wilson, E.G., Miller, K.L., Allison, D. and Magliocca, M. “Why Healthy Oceans Need Sea Turtles: The Importance of Sea Turtles to Marine Ecosystems.” Oceana. Why_Healthy_Oceans_Need_Sea_Turtles.pdf.
3. “Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys Coriacea) :: NOAA Fisheries,” accessed October 14, 2017, http:// html.
4. “Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys Coriacea) :: NOAA Fisheries.”

Mexican Wolf

1. Hedrick, Philip. 2016. Genetics and Recovery
Goals for Mexican Wolves. Biological
Conservation, biocon.2016.12.033.; USFWS. 2012. Draft Mexican Wolf Revised Recovery Plan. 05-07-2012. USFWS Southwest Region (Region 2). Albuquerque, New Mexico.
2. USFWS. 2016. Meeting Notes from Mexican Wolf Recovery Planning Workshop. April 11-15, 2016. Galleria Plaza Reforma, Mexico City, Mexico. p. 4.
3. Research & Polling. 2008. Wolf Recovery Survey— Arizona. Reading17WolfSurveyAZ.pdf; Tulchin Research. 2013. New Poll Finds Strong Support for Wolf Protection in Southwestern Border States. polling/Polling%20memo%20AZ%20NM%20 2013.pdf
4. Maffly, Brian. 2013. Legislators steering another $300,000 to anti-wolf crusade. The Salt Lake Tribune. Mar 07 2013. http://archive.sltrib. com/story.php?ref=/sltrib/politics/55960783- 90/300000-anti-contract-game.html.csp
5. Arizona Game and Fish Department [AZGFD] et al. Cover letter to Benjamin Tuggle, April 15, 2014. Arizona Game and Fish Department is the first signatory. Letter accompanies “Mexican wolf management in Arizona and New Mexico: A Cooperating Agencies Alternative,” 15 April 2014.
6. Lobos of the Southwest. 2017. Whose Side Are They On? States’ Efforts to Derail Wolf Recovery. Derail_Wolf_Recovery.pdf

Greater Sage-Grouse

1. Holloran, M. J. 2005. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population response to natural gas field development
in western Wyoming. PhD Dissertation. University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
2. Knick, S.T., S.E. Hanser, and K.L. Preston. 2013. Modeling ecological minimum requirements
for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks – Implications for population connectivity across their western range, USA. Ecology and Evolution 3: 1539- 1551.
3. Reisner, M.D., J.B. Grace, D.A. Pyke, and P.S. Doescher. 2013. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. J. Appl. Ecol. 50:1039-1049.
4. Hagen, C.A., J.W. Connelly, and M.A. Schroeder. 2007. A meta-analysis of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nesting and brood- rearing habitats. Wildlife Biology 13:42–50.
5. Rowland, M.M., Wisdom, M.J., Suring, L.H.
& Meinke, C.W. 2006. Greater sage-grouse as
an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates. Biological Conservation, 129, 323–335
6. (NTT) Sage-grouse National Technical Team. 2011. A Report on National Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Measures. Available at www.blm. gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/co/programs/ wildlife.Par.73607.File.dat/GrSG%20Tech%20 Team%20Report.pdf.
7. Molvar, E.M. 2015. The shrinking geography
of sage grouse conservation. Santa Fe, NM: WildEarth Guardians, 17 pp. Online at http:// The_Shrinking_Geography_of_Sage_Grouse_ Conservation_Fina.pdf?docID=16402.
8. Scott Streater, “Millions of Acres of Grouse Habitat Opening to Mining,” GreenWire, September
22, 2017, stories/1060061473/search?keyword=Millions+of+acr es+of+grouse+habitat+opening+to+mining.

Pallid Sturgeon

1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2014. Revised Recovery Plan for the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. 115 pp.
2. Jacobson, R.B., Annis, M.L., Colvin, M.E., James, D.A., Welker, T.L., and Parsley, M.J., 2016, Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5064, 154 p.,
3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service). 2003. Amendment to Biological Opinion on the Operation of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System, Operation and Maintenance of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization And Navigation Project and Operation of the Kansas River reservoir system. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
4. U.S Fish and Wildlife Service. 2016. Draft Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
5. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 2016. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana Final Environmental Impact Statement.

San Jacinto Valley Crownscale

1. Center for Biological Diversity (CBD). N.d. Saving the San Jacinto Valley Crownscale. Center for Biological Diversity. Online at, accessed July 26, 2017.
2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2017. Environmental Conservation Online System. Washington DC: Department of the Interior. Online at, accessed July 25, 2017.
3. Federal Register. 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Allium munzii (Munz’s Onion) and Atriplex coronate var. notatior (San Jacinto Valley Crownscale), April 16. Washington DC: Department of the Interior. Online at, accessed July 26, 2017.
4. Federal Register. 2012. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Allium munzii (Munz’s onion) and Atriplex coronate var. notatior (San Jacinto Valley crownscale), April 17. Washington DC: Department of the Interior. Online at, accessed July 25, 2017.
5. Federal Register. 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Allium munzii (Munz’s Onion) and Atriplex coronate var. notatior (San Jacinto Valley Crownscale), April 16. Washington DC: Department of the Interior. Online at, accessed July 26, 2017.
6. Department of the Interior (DOI). 2006. Investigative Report on Allegations against Julie McDonald, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Fish Wildlife, and Parkor General, December 1. Washington DC: Department of the Interior. Online at, accessed July 27, 2017.
7. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2012. Atriplex coronata var. notatior (San Jacinto Valley Crownscale) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation, August 17. Washington DC: Department of the Interior. Online at, accessed July 25, 2017.


1. Sonja E. Jahrsdoerfer and David M. Leslie, “Tamaulipan Brushland of the Lower Rio Grane Valley of South Texas: Description, Human Impacts, and Management Options,” Biological Report (USFWS, November 1988); Thomas A. Tremblay, William A. White, and Jay A. Raney, “Native Woodland Loss During the Mid 1900s in Cameron County, Texas,” The Southwestern Naturalist 50, no. 4 (2005): 479–82.
2. “Feds to Analyze Wildlife Services’ Impacts on Endangered Ocelots in Arizona, Texas” (Center for Biological Diversity, June 26, 2017),
3. J.E. Janecka et al., “Reduced Genetic Diversity and Isolation of Remnant Ocelot Populations Occupying a Severely Fragmented Landscape in Southern Texas,” Animal Conservation, 2011, 1–12.
4. “House Appropriations Committee Greenlights Trump’s Destructive Border Wall” (Center for Biological Diversity, July 18, 2017),
5. “House Appropriations Committee Greenlights Trump’s Destructive Border Wall.”

Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

1. Ryberg, W.A., M.T. Hill, D. Lay, and L.A. Fitzgerald. 2012. Observation on the nesting ecology and early life history of the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus). Western North American Naturalist 72: 582-585.
2. Li, Y. and T. Male. 2013. Dunes sagebrush lizard the cautionary tale of a candidate species denied. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington, D.C. 20pp.
3. Li, Y., A. Shepard, and T. Male. 2013. Habitat disturbance under the Texas Habitat Conservation Plan for the dunes sagebrush lizard. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington DC 20pp.
4. Department of the Interior. 2014. Gary Mowad v. Department of the Interior. DA-1221-13-0262-W-4. August 18, 2014. Transcripts of personnel hearing, Department of the Interior, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
5. DiChristopher, T. 2017. A tiny lizard is messing with mining stocks in the hottest oil region in America. September 29, 2017. CNBC.
6. Collier, K. 2017⸀ Oilfield sand miners encroaching on threatened west Texas lizard. August 14, 2017. Texas Tribune.
7. Lininger, J.C., C. Bradley, and T. McKinnon. 2011. Impact of dunes sagebrush lizard protection on oil and gas activity in west Texas. A Center for Biological Diversity Report. Center for Biological Diversity, Tucson, Arizona.
8. Dexheimer, E. 2017. West Texas sand rush exposes fault in state’s lizard protection plan. August 17, 2017. American-Statesman.–regional-govt–politics/west-texas-sand-rush-exposes-faults-state-lizard-protection-plan/mkN7SNg7L1k9Tjyit/

Hermes Copper Butterfly

1. “Petition to list Hermes Copper Butterfly as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act,” accessed October 28, 2017.
2. “Species Assessment Form: Lycaena Hermes,” accessed October 13, 2017,

North Atlantic Right Whale

1. “President Trump and Secretary Zinke Open up Comment Period for New 5-Year National Offshore Oil and Gas Leasing Program | U.S. Department of the Interior,” accessed October 13, 2017,
2. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium Annual Meeting, October 22, 2017.
3. “2017 North Atlantic Right Whale Unusual Mortality Event :: NOAA Fisheries,” accessed October 12, 2017,
4. Christopher Clark et al., “Seismic Atlantic Scientists Statement to the President of the United States,” April 14, 2016.
5. “President Trump and Secretary Zinke Open up Comment Period for New 5-Year National Offshore Oil and Gas Leasing Program | U.S. Department of the Interior.”


1. “Gulo Gulo (Wolverine),” accessed October 28, 2017,
2. “Species Profile for North American Wolverine (Gulo Gulo Luscus),” accessed October 28, 2017, speciesProfile?spcode=A0FA.
3. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, “50 CFR Part 17,” Federal Register 78, no. 23 (February 4, 2013), FR-2013-02-04/pdf/2013-01478.pdf.
4. McKelvey, K. S., Copeland, J. P., Schwartz, M. K., Littell, J. S., Aubry, K. B., Squires, J. R., Parks, S. A., Elsner, M. M. and Mauger, G. S. (2011), Climate change predicted to shift wolverine distributions, connectivity, and dispersal corridors. Ecological Applications, 21: 2882–2897. doi:10.1890/10-2206.1
5. Defenders of Wildlife v. USDOI, USFWS, etal., Filed 8/17/2015, No. CV 14-246-M-DLC, accessed October 28, 20


We are grateful to each member group that nominated species for this year’s report. We’re particularly grateful to those who helped shape the top ten stories: Center for Biological Diversity – Chris Nagano, Collette Adkins, Jim Cronin, and Tierra Curry; Cetacean Society International – William Rossitor and David Kaplin; Defenders of Wildlife – Aaron Hall and Leigh Anne Tiffany; Endangered Habitats League – Michael Beck; Natural Resources Defense Council – Matt Skoglund; Turtle Island Restoration Network – Cassie Burdyshaw; Union of Concerned Scientists – Jacob Carter; Western Watersheds Project – Erik Molvar; Wildlands Network – Greg Costello, Kim Crumbo, and Katy Schaffer. Many thanks go out to our staff, particularly Derek Goldman, Rachel Jankowski, and Mitch Merry, for their work on this report. Our board member, Jan Randall, Ph.D., has done another stellar job of organizing our incredibly helpful judges on the Scientific Advisory Committee: Richard Buchholz, PhD, Gregory S. Butcher, PhD, Sylvia Fallon, PhD, Malcolm Hunter, PhD, David Inouye, PhD, Gary A. Krupnick, PhD, Thomas E. Lovejoy, PhD, Terry L. Root, PhD, and Brian Silliman, PhD. We’re thankful for Kimberly Sutherland for crafting the species profiles and Orith Kolodny for her moving design.