New York State, Department of Environmental Conservation,

NOAA, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,

Economic Dependence of U.S. Industrial Sectors on Animal-Mediated Pollination Service, Shauhrat S. Chopra, Bhavik R. Bakshi, and Vikas Khanna, Environmental Science & Technology 2015 49 (24), 14441-14451

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03788


African Elephant

The International Fund for Animal Welfare, Humane Society International, The Humane Society of the United States, and The Fund for Animals, Petition to The Secretary of the Interior to List the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) as Endangered Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act, February 11, 2015.

Challender, D., T. Van Nguyen, C. Shepherd, K. Krishnasamy, A. Wang, B. Lee, E. Panjang, L. Fletcher, S. Heng, J. Seah Han Ming, A. Olsson, A. Nguyen The Truong, Q. Nguyen Van, and Y. Chung. (2014c). Manis javanica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed from

De Silva et al –

and Bates et al. –

McComb et al –

Naidoo et al. –

Great Elephant Census –


Atlantic White Cedar


Bald Cypress

Taxodium distichum – baldcypress – US Forest Service, 2002, Retrieved 18 April 2016 from exports-report.pdf


Elkhorn Coral

Lirman, D., Reef fish communities associated with Acropora palmata: relationships to benthic attributes, Bull. Mar. Sci., 65, 235–252 (1999).

Bertness, M. D., Bruno, J. F., Silliman, B. R., Stachowicz, J. J., Marine Community Ecology and Conservation, (Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2013).


Gray Wolf

Belant, J. L. and L. G. Adams. 2010. Wolves Will Not Provide Small-scale Ecological Restoration. Bioscience 60:485-485.

Berger, K. M., E. Gese, and J. Berger. 2008. Indirect Effects and Traditional Trophic Cascades: A Test Involving Wolves, Coyotes, and Pronghorn. Ecology 89:818-828.

Beschta, R. and W. Ripple. 2006. River channel dynamics following extirpation of wolves in northwestern Yellowstone National Park, USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31:1525-1539.

Beschta, R. and W. Ripple. 2009. Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biological Conservation 42:2401-2414.

Bump, J., R. O. Peterson, and J. A. Vucetich. 2009. Wolves modulate soil nutrient heterogeneity and foliage nitrogen by configuring the distribution of ungulate carcasses. Ecology 90:3159-3167.

Callan, R., N. P. Nibbelink, T. P. Rooney, J. E. Wiedenhoeft, and A. P. Wydeven. 2013. Recolonizing wolves trigger a trophic cascade in Wisconsin (USA). Journal of Ecology 101:837-845.

Constible, J. M., L. H. Sandro, and R. E. Lee. 2008. Carrion – It’s what’s for dinner: Wolves reduce the impact of climate change. American Biology Teacher 70:95-102.

Estes, J. A., J. Terborgh, J. S. Brashares, M. E. Power, J. Berger, W. J. Bond, S. R. Carpenter, T. E. Essington, R. D. Holt, J. B. C. Jackson, R. J. Marquis, L. Oksanen, T. Oksanen, R. T. Paine, E. K. Pikitch, W. J. Ripple, S. A. Sandin, M. Scheffer, T. W. Schoener, J. B. Shurin, A. R. E. Sinclair, M. E. Soule, R. Virtanen, and D. A. Wardle. 2011. Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth. Science 333:301-306.

Fortin, D., L. B. Hawthorne, M. S. Boyce, D. W. Smith, D. Thierry, and J. S. Mao. 2005. Wolves Influence Elk Movements: Behavior Shapes a Trophic Cascade in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:1320-1330.

George, K. A., K. M. Slagle, R. S. Wilson, S. J. Moeller, and J. T. Bruskotter. 2016. Changes in attitudes toward animals in the United States from 1978 to 2014. Biological Conservation 201:237-242.

Hebblewhite, M., C. A. White, C. G. Nietvelt, J. A. McKenzie, T. E. Hurd, J. M. Fryxell, S. E. Bayley, and P. C. Paquet. 2005. Human activity mediates a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Ecology 86:2135-2144.

Hedrick, P. and R. Fredrickson. 2010. Genetic rescue guidelines with examples from Mexican wolves and Florida panthers. Conservation Genetics 11:615-626.

Interagency Field Team. 2005. Mexican Wolf Blue Range Rintroduction Proejct 5 Year Review: Technical Component.

Kellert, S. R. 1996. The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human

Society. Washington. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

National Park Service. 2016. 2015 National Park Service Vistor Spending Effects Report.

Paquet, P. C., J. A. Vucetich, M. K. Phillips, and L. Vucetich. 2001. Mexican Wolf Recovery: Three-Year Program Review and Assessment. Prepared by the IUCN-SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, NM.

Ripple, W. and R. Beschta. 2007. Restoring Yellowstone’s aspens with wolves. Biological Conservation 138:514-519.

Ripple, W. J., A. J. Wirsing, R. L. Beschta, and S. W. Buskirk. 2011. Can Restoring Wolves Aid in Lynx Recovery? Wildlife Society Bulletin 35:514-518.

Ritchie, E. G. and C. N. Johnson. 2009. Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation. Ecology Letters 12:982-998.

Smith, D. W., P. O. Rolf, and D. B. Houston. 2003. Yellowstone after Wolves. Bioscience 53:330-340.

Stahler, D. R., D. W. Smith, and D. S. Guernsey. 2006. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): Lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Journal of Nutrition 136:1923S-1926S.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Mexican Wolf Recovery Program: Progress Report #15: Reporting Period: January 1 – December 31, 2012.

Wilmers, C. C. and W. M. Getz. 2005. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone. PLOS Biology 3:571-576.


Greater Sage-Grouse

12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as an Endangered or Threatened Species. 80 Fed. Reg. 59858.

Knick, S. T. and J. W. Connelly (eds.). Greater Sage-grouse: Ecology and Conservation of a Landscape Species and Its Habitats. Studies in Avian Biol. Series, vol. 38. Cooper Ornithological Society. Univ. Calif. Press. Berkeley, CA.



U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Trump Wall, IPaC Trust Resources Report Generated May 03, 2016 02:10 PM MDT, IPaC v3.0.2,

Borderlands Jaguars Borderland Jaguars: Tigres de la Frontera by David E. Brown and Carlos Lopez Gonzalez, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2001.

Povilitis, Tony. 2014. Recovering the jaguar Panthera onca in peripheral

range: a challenge to conservation policy. Fauna & Flora International, Oryx. 1-6.


Joshua Tree


Snake River Salmon

Snake River Spring/Summer-run Chinook. (n.d.) NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region.

Retrieved from



Douglas J. Nemeth and Russell B. Kiefer, Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon –The Choice for Recovery, in Fisheries Management. October 1999. Volume 24, No. 10.

The Problem: Importance of Habitat and Population Integrity. (n.d.). Snake River Salmon

Solutions. Retrieved from:

Garrett, H. (March 5, 2013). Revealing new data shows killer whales’ winter affinity for the Columbia River mouth. Save Our Wild Salmon. Retrieved from connection/revealing-new-data-shows-


137 Species Connected to Salmon. (n.d.). Pacific Northwest Salmon Center. Retrieved from

Cederholm, J. et al. (2000). Pacific Salmon and Wildlife – Ecological Contexts, Relationships, and Implications for Management 2nd Edition. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved from

Williams, Richard, Editor, Return to the River – Restoring salmon to the Columbia Basin. Elsevier Press, San Francisco, 2006.



CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2016. Report of the Seventh Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita, Ensenada, Baja California, México, 10-13 May 2016, Unpublished Report, 76pp.

Riofrío-Lazo, M., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., Zetina-Rejón, M., & Escobar-Toledo, F. (2013). The ecological role of the Vaquita, Phocoena sinus, in the ecosystem of the Northern Gulf of California. Ecosystems, 16(3), 416-433.

Mexican Official Gazette 25/01/2005 Acuerdo por el que se establece veda de curvina golfina (Cynoscion othonopterus), en las aguas de Jurisdicción Federal tanto marinas como estuarinas, de la Reserva de la Biosfera Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado.

Profepa Press Release BP/ 239 – 16 Tijuana, B.C., a 25 de marzo de 2016. Enmallamiento pudo haber causado la muerte de tres vaquitas marinas.

Main Hawaiian Islands False Killer Whale

Baird, R.W. (2009). A review of false killer whale in Hawaiian waters: biology, status, and risk factors. A report prepared for the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.

National Marine Fisheries Service (2012). Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct Population Segment. 77 Fed. Reg. 70915, November 28, 2012.


Gulf of Mexico Bryde’s Whale

Natural Resources Defense Council (2014). A petition to list the Gulf of Mexico Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. September 18, 2014.

Baird, R.W. (2009). A review of false killer whale in Hawaiian waters: biology, status, and risk factors. A report prepared for the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.

National Marine Fisheries Service (2012). Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct Population Segment. 77 Fed. Reg. 70915, November 28, 2012.


Yellow-Faced Bee

ESA petitions with relevant supporting literature can be found at

“Hawaii’s Native Bees – Nalo Meli Maoli,” by Karl Magnacca.



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